Environmental Monitoring

Environmental Monitoring

Once you have a clear idea of the questions you want to answer (and all the preliminaries) you can start to design an appropriate program. Here we use a "Frequently Asked Questions" format to start you on the process of designing and implementing a sampling program. A simple overview of the "data cycle" is shown below:

Data are not an end in themselves: they are collected for a purpose and, ultimately, need to be used for that purpose.

  1. How do I know if I have a problem?
  2. How do I design a good sampling program?
  3. How do I formulate an hypothesis for testing?
  4. What is a "null" hypothesis?
  5. How do I link management to the sampling program?
  6. How do I get the best outcomes if I can't design an ideal program?
  7. What are Type I and Type II errors?
  8. How do I guard against errors and confusion?
  9. How do I choose the best methods?
  10. How do I choose the most appropriate parameters for measurement?
  11. Why can't I use simple chemical concentrations in water?
  12. How do I make sure the program is effective and efficient?
  13. How do I get reliable results?
  14. Why is it important to determine the size of the effect that is important?
  15. How can I use existing data?
  16. How do I choose the appropriate statistical methods?
  17. Why is QA/QC important?
  18. What are "Precision" and "Bias"? Why are they important?
  19. Can I use volunteers for good sampling programs?
  20. A summary

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