What was once simple called climate, “change” has now turned its phase into climate, “crisis” and rightly so, because of the pollution around the...
Ask most people about the moringa tree, and they will tell you about its extraordinary health and medicinal properties. They will say about how...
Over the past few years, we have seen a rapid change in our environment, which is majorly due to human interference. This changing environment...
The increase in buzz around environmental awareness has emerged the development of a new tool for monitoring the environment. This is called the environment...
Before we dig into the details for the qualifications of an anvironmental scientist or an environmental monitor, it is essential to know the meaning...
An adult should drink at least 2 litres of contaminant-free water daily for proper hydration and good health. There is a range of water...
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An adult should drink at least 2 litres of contaminant-free water daily for proper hydration and good health. There is a range of water filtration systems you can use but fridge water filters are some of the best options. These are water filters that come in a refrigerator. Visit discount fridge filters for some of the best fridge filters in Australia. The reason fridge water filters have grown popular is because of the many benefits they offer. I know you are wondering what these benefits are. We’ve made it easy for you. We have put together 10 of the major benefits you get from fridge filters. They include:
1. Purifies Tap WaterOne of the benefits of fridge water filters is purifying tap water. Some people drink water directly from the tap, which exposes them to many health problems. We know that despite the treatment at the municipal reservoir, the water is likely to collect bacterial, protozoans, and viruses along the supply line. That’s the reason why drinking tap water is not recommended. With a fridge, you will have the tap water quality improved by removing contaminants.
2. You Will Drink More WaterEvery adult is recommended to drink at least two litres of water every day. But this can be a very big target to hit, especially if you are drinking tap water. Because of the contamination of microorganisms and chemicals, the water is likely to have a bad taste and smell. With a fridge water filter, you will remove bacteria and chemicals such as fluoride and chloride to give the water a good taste and smell. That water will become tastier, and that’s how these water filters enable you to drink more water.
3. Improves Your Kid’s HealthIf you have kids in the house, their health and wellbeing are crucial. One of the best ways to ensure their good health is to make sure they are drinking enough water. But having kids drink a lot of water can be a bit tricky, especially if it’s tap water. With a water filter, you will be able to make your tap water tastier. Do note that some of the fridge water filters can produce alkaline water, which is even tastier. That’s how your kids’ health will improve with water filters.
4. Saves You MoneyHave you ever thought of how much money you spend on buying bottled water? It’s a lot of money if you take mineral water daily. Most people don’t know that water filtered with a quality filter has better quality than most of these bottled waters. Besides that, the cost of bottled water can be thousand times the filtered water. Therefore, you will be saving a lot of money with your fridge water filters. You just need water bottles to bring the filtered water to the office or when out and about.
5. Eco-FriendlyOne of the biggest benefits of water filters for the fridge is promoting a safer environment. One of the contributors to environmental degradation is plastic water bottles. Plastic has not only polluted the mainland but has also found its way into the marine ecosystem. The use of water filters is helping reduce environmental damages by suppressing the demand for plastic bottles. The impact goes to the manufacturing of the bottles and reduced demand for raw materials. Therefore, using water filters have a great impact on the environment.
6. Cold and Hot WaterThe biggest advantage of a fridge water filter over other water filters is a hot and cold water dispenser. Most refrigerator brands are offering this feature. Once the water has been filtered, it is taken to the heating and cooling chambers. During the hot summer, you can take a pleasant cold glass of water from your fridge at any time. Similarly, during the cold winters, you can take a glass of warm or hot water from the fridge.
7. Instant Filtered WaterFor the fridge water filters, you get instant water. You do not have to wait as it is with the typical water filters. With other water filters, you need to give them time for the water to be filtered so that they can have it for drinking. The fridge filter purifies water and stores it in the container, ready for drinking. The container size differs from the model of the refrigerator.
8. They Produce IceAnother advantage that a refrigerator water filter has over other water filters is production ice. If you invest in a quality brand, you will enjoy ice from the filtered water. In fact, these filters have ready-made ice if you need ice urgently. This is a great feature, especially for the hot summer when you need something to keep you cool. With this ice, you will avoid eating unhealthy ice creams.
9. Improves ConvenienceInvesting in refrigerator water filters will make things to do with drinking water more convenient. You will get clean hot or cold water instantly, which makes things move faster in the house. In addition to that, you will always have a large quantity of filtered water with these filters. Immediately the filtered water level goes down; the water filter will start refilling it. These are just some of the ways fridge filters will improve convenience in your house or office.
10. Comes with a FridgeThe last but not least benefit of a water fridge filter is that it comes with a refrigerator. This is the most current trend in the market, and most new fridges are now coming with a built-in water filtration system. Therefore, it is a package and relatively cheaper compared to buying both items separately. If you were wondering whether to invest in a built-in refrigerator water filter, these are the reasons why you should buy one. Do note that fridge water filters are as good as other water filters. But make sure you are buying a quality, reputable and reliable brand.
What was once simple called climate, “change” has now turned its phase into climate, “crisis” and rightly so, because of the pollution around the globe contributes to almost 9 million deaths annually, that is roughly estimated for 1 in 6 people. The drastic pace at this rate will lead the human race to a climatic catastrophe. Even the best case scenarios predicted by the UN, demands for aggressive and swift actions to be taken on the global carbon emissions, which means the current pollution level should fall by 40-70% to achieve the desired climatic conditions on the globe.
The three primary reasons for his inconsistency are:
Environmental MonitoringOne essential way to keep things under control is by using the technique of environmental monitoring. Environmental monitoring is a tool used to collect the data from the air, water, soil, and other environmental conditions and eliminate the sources hampering their sanity. The environmental monitoring efforts in today’s world, is highly disparate and inconsistent. The system has been implemented in a handful of countries including a few in Central Asia and Europe, even then with the lack of sufficient data and often inconsistent.
- Time consuming process
- Red tape due to loss of paperwork
Environmental Monitoring with the Internet of ThingsThe hardships faced while employing the steps for environmental monitoring can be reduced by a substantial amount by employing the new technologies in the market. One among them is the Internet of Things that has proved its advantage in reducing the climatic crisis on the globe. Some methods by which it could do so, are mentioned below:
- Better carbon monitoring techniques: Sensors used in the IoT can help the government of a country to monitor the carbon emissions and taxation as only 15% of the emissions are taxed today. The tampering of the air quality measurement sensors can predict better when connected to IOT serves, whilst having a list of the activists and data.
- Smart forestry and agriculture: The world its turning towards being, “smart” and the smart agriculture is a massive contribution as it is estimated to reduce 3% of the climatic pollution. Agriculture not only emphasizes on the illegal logging activities to prevent deforestation, but also emphasizes on the livestock monitoring based on the animals’ movements and their behavior.
- Closely monitoring cities: The development of smart cities through connected devices can help the government better in understanding the needs, and the downturns of the waste management strategies and take other friendly environment-related steps to prevent further climatic crisis.
Smart climate changeThe kitchen, house, city, the country and ultimately the entire globe is turning smart with the implementation of technologies like the IOT. Through a well-planned and a considerable approach towards, today’s climatic crisis, the current rate of emission can be cut down drastically and also aid in a positive climatic change in the environment. With the aid of hardware sensors, the environmental monitoring steps and achievements becomes all the more simpler and easier in the long run, thus solving climatic crisis- one step at a time.
Ask most people about the moringa tree, and they will tell you about its extraordinary health and medicinal properties. They will say about how it’s a superfood with a range of nutrients and minerals. But little is known about moringa tree environmental benefits. Most people are not aware moringa can resolve land degradation problems. The moringa tree can play an important role in mitigating climate changes in the driest parts of the world. It has been used in most parts of the world, such as sub-Saharan Africa and parts of Asia, to address land degradation problems. It is essential to note land degradation is one of the factors contributing to global warming. There are many ways that planting moringa can help mitigate land degradation. That’s what we will be looking at in this post. We have rounded up four ways that the tree is being used to combat land degradation in the driest parts of the world.
1. Growing Moringa In ContainersMoringa is one of the trees that can be grown in containers. In fact, growing moringa in containers is a common practice people do in dry areas. Even without knowing, this is one of the practices that have been identified to help deal with land degradation. Did you know that more than 70% of water watered on the garden plants ends up waste? Well, now, you know. When you water trees in the garden, most of the water will end up evaporating. Other plants, including weeds, will take up some water. In the end, most of the water won’t go to the plant. It requires very little water to grow moringa in containers. Whether you are using clay or plastic pots, they are able to contain most of the water. You won’t require a lot of water, which is good for environmental conservation. Growing moringa in containers also enables us to grow more trees to increase the green cover. If more people do the same, it will go a long way in reversing land degradation.
2. AgroforestryThe other way moringa can help in resolving the land degradation problem is by promoting agroforestry. In most parts of the world, like Africa, moringa is now widely grown for business. With the demand for the moringa leaves powder across the world rising, most farmers are now growing the plant for business. By default, the large tracts of land under moringa trees are helping rehabilitate the lost green cover. Growing moringa tree for business is very attractive and makes people want to plant more. More trees will be planted as more people learn about the health and medicinal benefits of this plant. In most cases, bare lands where farming has been going are where moringa is being planted. That’s how effective land degradation is being addressed by default. Agroforestry is a form of afforestation that fixes land degradation, especially soil erosion. Mainlands are losing a lot of topsoils to runoffs during heavy rains. Did you know that more than 400 million people in China are affected by soil erosion? The problem is also big in India and many other parts of the world. With more moringa trees, we address soil erosion, which is a huge environmental concern.
3. DesertificationAnother way planting moringa is can fix land degradation is by combating the effects of desertification. A good example is in Africa and parts of Asia, where the problem is affecting both humans and wildlife. Countries like Kenya, Djibouti, Somalia, and Ethiopia are the most affected in Africa. In Asia, countries like India, China, and most Arab countries are some of the most affected. Moringa is one of the best drought resistant plants. That’s the reason why the plant is doing very well, even in deserts. To combat the effects of desertification, experts are using drought-resistance plants with economic value to the community. Moringa has every motivation for communities living in the desert to grow. They can make a living out of the plant and still combat the effects of desertification. Studies have shown that increasing the green cover can reverse desertification. Planting trees reduce soil erosion, which is a major problem with desertification. With time, soil quality starts to improve, and more nutrients are available for other plants to grow. This means the vegetation cover will start coming back hence reducing the effect of desertification. That’s the effect that moringa has in combating desertification.
4. Reducing Global WarmingThe other little-known fact about moringa in resolving land degradation is combating global warming. We all know that the current climate change is a result of global warming. The planet is getting warmer every day, and this is causing lots of environmental disasters. Well, some of these disasters, including desertification, changing seasons, and rising sea levels. Global warming is one of the causes of land degradation. From severe droughts to heavy rains, global warming is making things worse on the already damaged lands. But we know that the increasing level of the atmosphere’s carbon dioxide gases is what’s making the planet warm. This is as a result of clearing the green cover, which is supposed to absorb the carbon dioxide gases. Moringa is one of the plants that could be used to fix this problem. Did you know that that moringa absorb carbon dioxide twenty times higher than the typical plants? Now you know. This means the more moringa trees we plant, the more we fix the global warming problem. If global warming can be fixed, seasons will come back to normal. There will be no draughts, and the green cover will be restored. The result will be a restoration of degraded land. Conclusion Moringa tree has numerous benefits to the planet earth. It’s indeed a miracle tree that can help us solve most of the problems, including land degradation. The economic benefits it offers makes it the ideal plant to combat land degradation problems. Even in the driest parts of the world, moringa oleifera will still blossom into a beautiful tree.
Over the past few years, we have seen a rapid change in our environment, which is majorly due to human interference. This changing environment is something that needs to be addressed as soon as possible. It is important that the people are looking into ways to help solve this crisis. Here are the environmental issues one should be aware of. Public Health Many think that the issues that we face today are tied to the pollution and scarcity of water. Nearly one out of every four deaths is caused directly caused by unhealthy environments. The growing anti-vaccination movements threaten public health, which can cause the resurgence of other eradicated diseases. Without water, humans cannot survive, and polluted waters are a huge threat to life. It can easily carry any airborne diseases and chemicals, which can result in a decline in people’s health.
Climate change is still a debate that continues to become a subject of more research but to no success. Climate change is happening, and over 97% of scientists believe that one of the main reasons for this is the rising global temperature. The rising temperature causes the ice caps to melt, droughts, wildfire, and other natural phenomena. Greenhouse gasses are leading the cause of climate change. This is emitted from human populations, which can help impact habitats, agriculture, and oceans. The only way to reduce climate change is to build sustainability, which involves solar and wind energy—limiting waste and pollution, which help preserve the environment.
Ecosystem and endangered species
There are a lot of environmental issues which is causing a loss in the ecosystems and species. It is said that one out of every ten plant and animal species will be extinct before 2050. The endangered species list continues to grow, and with the ecosystem continuing to grow, we can see a decrease and loss in their habitat. The rising temperatures and the melting ice has eliminated the habitat of the polar bears. There are many habitats that are trying to preserve what is left to help combat the issues.
15% of greenhouse gases emission can come from deforestation. By 2030, it is estimated that only 1% of our rain forest will be left. Cutting down the wood and wood pulp has led to more than 70% of the plants and animal species to disappear. Ecosystems have died due to the continuous climate change. The trees produce less oxygen and can easily absorb the carbon. The greed for lumber and land has led the people to cut down the trees. It is important that we start to preserve the remaining trees before and adopt one tree method before cutting down another.
The increase in buzz around environmental awareness has emerged the development of a new tool for monitoring the environment. This is called the environment monitoring. By definition, environment monitoring is a tool emerged to assess the changing environmental conditions, support policy development and implementations. It also aids in supporting the national and international policymakers for forums, and the public. This process involves various tests and investigations, that can cause potential hampering to the environment. Human activities can also drastically impact the investigations.
Purpose of environmental monitoringThe primary goal of environmental monitoring is to understand the needs of the environment and protect it from any human activities that hamper the sanity, and the environment’s well-being. This process forms an integral part of the environmental impact assessments which involves the following activities:
- Establishing baseline quality
- Uncovering environmental trends
- Identifying any variations in the environment
- Determining and following up the success of the project.
Sectors of environmental monitoringThe people or the team that conducts the tasks of environmental monitoring is called environmental specialists, and they primarily focus of four different sectors of the environment — air, soil, water, and biodiversity.
- Air monitoring: Air quality monitoring is an essential part of the sector as air pollution is increasing at an alarming rate, all around the globe. The conditions have reached to an extent that the government and the EU has introduced the air pollution standards and expects every country and state to meet their requirements. The data from the anemometer is taken into consideration to check the air quality. Topographic readings are considered to prevent the process of lateral atmospheric mixing
- Soil Monitoring: Since farming is a major source of food production and a substantial source of income in various regions of the world, monitoring soil quality is of utmost importance in these regions. It also involves the regeneration of jungles and forests for clear, CO2 free air. The team also keeps tab on the process of soil erosion, contamination and the amount of salts in the soil.
- Water monitoring: Often times, the sewage from nearby factories are released into the water bodies, causing chemical reactions in water, thereby harming the quality of water in the environment that includes lakes, estuaries, rives, oceans, seas, etc. Water quality specialist keeps tab on the physical quality of water like the flow, temperature, erosion, and sediments. They also consider the biological elements such as the measurements of plant and Animal life in the water that ultimately helps in determining the quality of water.
- Biodiversity monitoring: Biodiversity monitoring is an essential part of maintaining the sustainability which depends on the ecosystem’s diversity. International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) are the primary contact that is essential for maintaining the biodiversity of a region, which aids massively in sustainable development. Biodiversity measurement is also a means to measure the loss of ecosystem and the degradation of the quality, and the loss of biodiversity in a region/country. With necessary steps, the biodiversity of a region can be processed again.
Before we dig into the details for the qualifications of an anvironmental scientist or an environmental monitor, it is essential to know the meaning of the role. An environmental monitor is responsible to collect the samples from different departments or sectors of the environment like the soil, water and also and also check the biodiversity of a region. They play a very important role in the issues regarding environment for the publics’ as well as the environment’s best interest. This means the qualifications required for the role are based on the environment and their studies. Regardless of their education background, potential scientists and environmental monitors should be willing to work enthusiastically in fields and outskirts as well. Their work demands them to be working either with government bodies or even individual and freelance scientists and monitors.
Average salary of an environmental monitorAccording to the reports, as of 2015, the average salaray for an average environmental motion is $43,030. If we happen to break this own based on employment services, then the highest pay is from the local government which was at $45,720 and that from engineering organizations was $43,930. The lowest salary was from the research labs- both private and public with an average of $37,010.
- At the minimum of the fresher levels, at leasta bachelor’s degree is require for most of the roles, especially for the field work and sampling ·
- Candidates with a degree in environmental science, life sciences, biology and chemistry will have an upper hand on the job.
- Anything other than field works will require a post-graduation degree.
- Analytical jobs demands for strong mathematics skills, specializing in statistics.
- For candidates that are planning to run their own research, a doctoratedegree is necessary
Demand for environmental monitors
According to certain researches, the demand for the role of an environmental monitor is expected to rise at the rate of 9% between 2014 to 2024, which is slightly higher than the national employment roles which is about 7%. As there is a greater increase in the harmful effects on the environment as well as the humans due to the drastic climatic changes or crisis, the need for these environmental monitor jobs are at a greater demand in the recent years. However, as the situation gets worse, the industry or the sector might need more experienced professionals in their field to create greater diversities of opportunities and the ones with prior lab experience will be the most in demand jobs ,.
ConclusionThe scope of an environmental monitor is on the rise in the outlining years and the need to spread awareness about this field is of utmost importance at this point. The qualifications of the candidate depends on the role and will not necessarily ask for a higher than bachelor’s degree for a beginner.
It is no secret that our marine life is dying due to human neglect. We have already seen the extinction of over 100 species on a yearly basis and still continue our own ways. But, with the understanding of the things that we are doing to our environment, we can see that there is a lot of ways you can stop the destruction of marine environment from happening. Reduce your carbon footprint If you want to see a reduction in the effects of the climate changes on the oceans, one way to do so is by leaving your car at home. This is one of the few things that you can start now. Start doing simple things like switching to fluorescent lights, taking stairs, and using fans than AC and thermostat. Sustainable seafood choices We can see that in the past few years, the global fish populations are rapidly depleting due to the demand, loss of habitat, and fishing practices. This can be stopped by reducing the overexploitation of the species to use them as food and making healthier and sustainable choices. Reduce plastic products Plastics that end up in the oceans are debris that can contribute to habitat destruction. It can also entangle and kill thousands of marine mammals. Make sure that you are trying to limit your impact and try to carry a reusable water bottle, reusable bag, and recycle whenever possible. It is also advisable to be familiar and knowledgeable on how to read the recycling symbols Australia. This will let us help save the mother earth considering that plastics tend to destroy our environment. Take care of the beach If you are someone who loves to enjoy diving, surfing, and relaxing on the beach, it is important that you always clean up. Try to explore different ways to appreciate the oceans and enjoy the place without harming the wildlife. Give change to marine life to thrive and participate in local beach cleanups. Do not purchase things that can exploit marine life There are a few products like coral jewelry, tortoiseshell hair, and other accessories or shark products and obtained by harming marine life. It might not seem huge to you, but can have a significant impact on marine life. Ocean friendly pet owner If you are a pet owner, it is important that you are considering different ways that can lead you to enjoy a sustainable diet. One thing to do is never flush cat litter as it may harm the marine environment. Try to make sure that you avoid releasing aquarium fishes in the wild, as this is one of the main causes that non-native species are introduced in the water. This can easily harm the whole ecosystem of the place and lead to the extinction of a lot of different species, which becomes prey to the invasive species.
Environmental monitoring is much needed to help protect the public and the environment from the contaminants and pathogens. They are used to prepare environmental impacts and assessments to help establish the circumstances that can have a negative impact on the natural environment. There are many different types of monitoring carried out, which include air, water, and soil, which can help establish the right status of the environment. The different types of monitoring are conducted on different types of contaminations. Air pollutants originate from vehicle emissions, refineries, power plants, and industrial processes. These pollutants include sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, etc. Soil and water can include microbiological, radioactive, synthetic, and volatile organic compounds. There are pesticides and herbicides, which can also be harmful. Heavy metal and organic contaminants are increasing in the parts of the environment due to excessive use. The metal contaminants have an increased presence in the aquatic food chain. For different pollutions there is different type of monitoring and sensors which is effective. Air pollution: Air pollution is a constantly growing problem and is done via air sampling. The sampling can be passive, diffusive, and can be done by biomonitoring. Air pollution is done via air sampling. The samples can be passive, diffusive, and can have bioaccumulated air pollutants. Air pollutions can concentrate heavily influenced by the wind, and others can be taken into account. Soil Monitoring: This is done through soil sampling, which includes soil erosion, salinity, and contaminations. The key here is to ensure that you have food contamination, which can regenerate forests and jungles and keep the air clean. Water monitoring: This is a wide range of sampling methods that can depend on the environment and the types of material used for analysis. This type of water sampling is easy, which requires you to obtain the right samples and check the toxicity of the water. There are numerous types of environmental sensors that depend on the monitoring specifications: the sensitivity and the size. Sensors can easily be divided into three main types, which include environmental factors. Trace metal sensors: This is Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, nanoelectrode, and miniature chemical flow probe sensor. Radioisotopic sensors: With this sensor, one can easily understand the radiation effect, cadmium zinc, telluride detectors, and other low energy pin diabase spectrometer. Volatile organic compound sensors: With Evanescent fiber-optic chemical senor, grating light reflection spectroscopy, miniature chemical flow probe sensor, and others can help you understand the number of toxins present in any organic compound. Biological sensors: There are many compounds that are present, and with the right sensors, one can find the fatty acid methyl esters, which can allow you to understand the toxins present in the environment.
Environmental monitoring is a tool that is essential for keeping track of the changes in the environment that hampers the environment (humans and surroundings) negatively. It is basically conducted to examine the quality of environment that is changing Day-by-day. The data collected from the environmental specialists is essential for both the governmental and non-governmental bodies.
Benefits for non-governmental bodiesIt is essential before nongovernmental bodies, and individual businesses to keep a tab on the environmental changes, with the concern to reduce further pollution of air, water, soil, and biodiversity.
- Health care professionals: The ailments in the human body is directly related to or concerned with the changes in the environment (climate and pollution), which impacts the human body drastically. Collecting information about these data and statistics from the environmental specialists can help in their treatment and to keep substances at arm’s length.
- Architectures and engineers: Environmental factors play a crucial role in the construction of a building or a structure. For instance, an engineer, and an architect ought to take care of all the possible hindrances that might occur while constructing a bridge by the sea, like the vibrations the water underneath, the climatic changes that could affect the height of the waves, and the level of water etc. Data collected from the environmental monitoring helps them in constructing accurately.
- Scientific researchers: Environmental scientists work in proximity with the scientific researchers. This is to ensure that no pollutants or hazardous can affect the wildlife and human life at a particular region. Also, the data and analysis collected by the scientists help in eliminating certain pollution from the atmosphere by purifying the air, hence reducing air pollution to an extent.
Benefits for governmental bodiesThe role of the environmental management is not just to provide the necessary and essential information to the industries, but to also help government in taking necessary actions, depending on the data produced by the department.
- Environmental management programs: They’re the programs or the plan to action that are essential to achieve certain targets and objectives laid out by the government and their organizations. Without necessary data and statistics (provided by the environmental monitoring department), it is impossible to carry out the plan-to action.
- Population monitoring: With the help of data from population monitoring it is easier for the government to spread the population across the country and help in population management. For instance, if a particular area is facing constant trouble with water and land supply, then they decide to move the big industries to the outskirts of the city or lower-density areas. By taking advantage of the data from the environmental monitoring departments, they can also create new cities like the New Delhi and New Mumbai.
- Regulatory approach: The information provided from the departments is useful in the regulations and enforcement which are anticipated. For instance, despite following all regulations, and not matching the quality of the air or water in a particular region, the government can take necessary actions to change the regulatory approach to get better results.
This site promotes sustainable environment management through an improved understanding of monitoring and good decision-making. To do this it covers all aspects of the principles of monitoring and reporting while emphasising the way the “problem” is understood and the factors that make a “good” design. Spending time on the design up front is a valuable investment. This can be daunting at first but provides opportunities to establish working relations with others and improved understanding of the environment and what you can and want to do to manage it. Useful references and guidelines are provided for further reading. The site is primarily targeted to local government staffs, who have a diverse range of skills and experience, and as such the site will, we hope, be useful to anyone interested in better management and environmental outcomes, including volunteers, community members, and students. The Sydney Coastal Councils Group believes that monitoring is integral to management, and that bringing together others with a common interest to look holistically at problem definition, program design, program outcomes, data management and analysis, and reporting, will improve the likelihood of good decisions leading to improved environmental outcomes.